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Most people who have taken tests have probably held a cram session or two in their lifetimes. They realize that they have a test a couple hours before it begins and frantically dig through notes, old quizzes, and worksheets to try to learn as much as is possible before the test.对于大多数应对考试的人来说,他们总有那么一两次会死记硬背。当他们意识到考试还有几个小时就要开始后,就疯狂地去翻阅笔记、以前的练习和学习单,以便在考试前能学一点是一点。

But a test is supposed to be an assessment of real learning. Can cramming help you actually learn something? Since there isn't a class specifically designed for "how to study," most people can't answer that question. (The answer is no!)但是,考试应该是对真正的学习的评定。死记硬背能让你拥有真才实学吗?因为没有哪个班级是专门为了研究“应该怎样学习”设立的,所以大多数人也答不上来这个问题。(答案是否定的!)

Our short-term memory, or working memory, is what we use when we cram for a test. This type of memory is what you'd use for remembering your order number at the dry cleaner's or your friend's cell phone number, but it's a very poor tool for remembering things you'd like to know in a few years or a lifetime. In order for knowledge to be ingrained inside a person – truly stuck in his or her long-term memory – you will need the following: repetition, time, and application of the material.   我们的短期记忆,或者工作记忆,是我们在为了考试死记硬背时会使用到的。这种记忆是你在记忆干洗店的序号,或者朋友的手机号时才会使用的,但是它不适合用来记忆你几年甚至终身会用到的知识。为了将知识根深蒂固地记在头脑中——真正长时间的记忆——你就需要这几样东西:重复、时间以及实践应用。

1.Repetition for Real Learning 重复

Repetition is absolutely necessary to learn anything long-term. Prepare yourself before you ever get wind of a test coming up by reviewing the material you learned in class that day. This could be a simple five-minute r


ead-through of notes or browsing through the chapter you went over and choosing 2-3 facts that really struck home. Your homework should help you in that area, but even if you don't have homework, consider it your nightly mission to go back through what you learned in class that day.重复对于任何形式的长期记忆来说,都是绝对必要的。在你打听到考试的风声后,就得复习当天在课堂上学习过的材料。这就需要你花上五分钟,通读一下笔记,或者浏览一下章节,选择2-3个重要的部分。你的家庭作业可以帮助你巩固那一部分的知识,即使你没有家庭作业,可以考虑将你的每晚任务作为复习当天课堂任务的对象。

And the more varied the repetition, the better it is for real learning. One night, read through your notes. The next night, sketch a picture of a major point from the lesson. The next night, create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting two concepts. Bonus? You won't have to go crazy studying when a test comes up because you'll already know the material.你重复的次数越多,对学习的效果越好。晚上,你可以看看自己的笔记。第二天晚上,回顾一下课堂的要点。第三天晚上,再将两个概念进行比较和对照,做一个维恩图解。至于奖励嘛,就是当考试来临时,你不用疯了一般地去学习,因为你已经对材料非常熟悉了。

2.Time for Real Learning真正学习的时间

Time is also necessary to encapsulate information inside the brain for life, which is why it's smart to stay on top of the content before the test day is ever announced. The shorter amount of time you have, the less repetition you will get. You'll also need to make sure that too much time doesn't elapse between review sessions, because information entrenched there can start to fade away if it isn't practiced daily. So, if you miss a review session, then make sure to pick it up as soon as is possible the next day. The best advice is to start reviewing the second you get any new information. Start as early as possible.将信息压缩储存在大脑中,也是非常必要的。这也是在考试宣布之前就熟知目录得聪明之处。你拥有的时间越短,你重复的次数就越少。你也需要确保在复习上花费的大量时间不会白费,因为建立的信息一旦不每天练习,就会消逝。所以,如果你错过了一次复习,第二天就要尽快弥补回来。最好的建议是,在你学习了新的信息的第二天就开始复习,尽可能快速行动起来。

3.Application for Real Learning 应用

Application is also incredibly important for long-term memory. If you can relate information to your lives in some way - really intersect the two -  the likelihood that you'll remember the information beyond test day increases exponentially. You can do simple things to apply information you've learned in class into your daily life. Use a new vocabulary word in conversation. Bring up the story you're reading in class in your next Facebook post or Tweet and see the type of responses you get. Post math problems and see if any of your relatives can answer them. 应用对于长时间记忆来说也是十分重要的。如果你可以以某种方式将信息和生活联系起来—真正贯穿这两者—那么你在考试那天页记得这些信息的可能性就会大大提升。你可以做一些简单的事情,将课堂上获取的信息运用到你的日常生活中去。在对话中使用新的词汇。将你在课堂上看到的故事放在Facebook或Tweet上,然后看看你会得到哪些回复。将一些数学题传到网上,然后看看你哪个亲朋好友可以回答。

Even better, write a story, draw a picture, or make a chart using the information you've learned. Linking your creative side with your academic side will create a mnemonic device, a memory aid you can use to summon the knowledge on test day and beyond.更好的是,写一个故事、画一幅画或者将你学到的信息做成一个表格。将你的创意和专业结合起来,可以创造出一个记忆技巧和辅助物,以便于在考试的时候唤起你所学的知识。

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