如何搞清英语里的12种时态?

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Tense and aspect, although they are two different categories, always appear together. There are six tenses and two aspects in English.With reference to tense and aspect, we can speak about the following structures in practical usage. All English Tenses with Examples!(Note: progressive aspect is often called continuous.)时态和体虽然是两个不同的类别,但它们总是出现在一起。英语中有六个时态和两种语体。参考时态和语体,我们可以在实际运用中谈论下列结构。所有附带例子的英语时态!注意:进行体通常被称为连续体。

一.Present Simple (present tense + common aspect)一.一般现在时(现在时态+通用体)

Affirmative: Subject + Base Form of the Verb肯定句:主语+动词原形

note: for 3rd Person Singular (he/ she/ it) add ‘s’ to the base form注:对于第三人称单数(他/她/它),要在动词原形后加“s”

I/ You/ We/ They work in a bank.我/你/我们/他们在银行工作。

He/ She works in a bank.他/她在银行工作。

Negative: Subject + don’t/ doesn’t + Base Form of the Verb否定句:主语+助动词不/不+ +动词原形

I/ You/ We/ They don’t (do not) work.我/你/我们/他们不工作。

He/ She/ It doesn’t (does not) work.他/她/它不工作。

Interrogative: Question Word + do/does + Subject + Base Form of the Verb疑问句:疑问词+助动词do/does+主语+动词原形

Where do I/ you/we/they work?我/你/我们/他们在哪里工作?

Where does he/ she work?他/她在哪里工作?

1. Usual, regular action:1.经常,规律的行为

I usually go fishing at weekends. I don’t go fishing at weekends. Do I go fishing at weekends?我通常在周末去钓鱼。我周末不去钓鱼。我周末去钓鱼吗?

You always know the answer. You don’t always know the answer. Do you always know the answer?你总是知道答案。你并不总是知道答案。你总是知道答案吗?

She never puts milk in her tea. She doesn’t put milk in her tea. Does she ever put milk in her tea?她从不把牛奶放进茶里。她不把牛奶放在茶里。她把牛奶放进茶里了吗?

My father plays the violin. My father doesn’t play the violin. Does your father play the violin?我父亲拉小提琴。我父亲不拉小提琴。你父亲拉小提琴吗?

We sometimes go to the cinema on Friday. We don’t go to the cinema on Friday. Do we go to the cinema on Fridays?我们有时星期五去看电影。我们星期五不去看电影。我们星期五去看电影吗?

They never walk in the wood. They don’t walk in the wood. Do they walk in the wood?他们从不在树林里散步。他们不在树林里散步。他们在树林里散步吗?

2. General existence; stating a fact:2.普遍存在;陈述事实:

An ostrich has two legs. A rabbit doesn’t have two legs. How many legs does a spider have?鸵鸟有两条腿。兔子没有两只腿。蜘蛛有多少条腿?

The earth goes round the sun. The sun doesn’t go round the earth. Does the moon go round the earth?地球绕着太阳转。太阳不会绕着地球转。月亮绕着地球转吗?

Water is liquid at room temperature. Gold isn’t liquid at room temperature. Is gold solid at room temperature?水在室温下是液态的。黄金在室温下不是液态的。金子在室温下是固体的吗?

3. Dramatic narrative (theatre, sports, etc. events):3.戏剧性的叙述(戏剧、体育等):

 Johnson takes the ball, he bounces it to the floor, then he throws and scores two points.约翰逊拿到球,他把球反弹到地板上,然后投了两分。

4. Timetables4.时间表

The train leaves at half past four. The train doesn’t leave at five. What time does the train leave?火车四点半发车,可是现在五点了还不开。火车什么时候发车?

The course starts on 1 July. The course doesn’t start in June. When does the course start?课程从7月1号开始,六月份这个课还没开课呢。课程什么时候开始?

二.Present Progressive (present tense + progressive aspect)二.现在进行时(现在时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + BE + Verb-ING肯定句:主语+be动词+动词ing形式

You are cooking.你正在做饭。

Negative: Subject + BE not + Verb-ING否定句:主语+be not+动词ing形式

You aren’t (are not) cooking.你没在做饭。

Interrogative: Question Word + BE + Subject + Verb-ING疑问句:疑问词+ be动词 +主语+动词ing形式

What are you cooking?你正在做什么饭?

1. Action happening now:1.表示正在发生的动作:

 I’m watching a film on TV now. I‘m not watching a film. Am I watching a film?我正在看电视上的电影。我现在没在看电影。我正在看电影吗?

Watch out, a car’s coming. It isn’t not coming. Is it coming?当心,汽车来了。汽车没来。汽车来了吗?

The boys are sleeping upstairs. They boys aren’t sleeping upstairs. Are the boys sleeping upstairs?孩子们正在楼上睡觉。孩子们没在楼上睡觉。孩子们正在楼上睡觉吗?

2. Action happening about this time, but not necessarily now:2.表示最近一段时间内进行的行为,不一定是现在正在做的。

He‘s studying Spanish and German. He‘s not studying French. What languages is he studying?他在学习西班牙语和德语。他没在学法语。他在学习什么语言?

They‘re going to a business course. They aren’t going to a cooking course. What course are they going to?他们要去上商业课。他们没去上烹饪课。他们要去上什么课?

You‘re visiting museums while you’re here. You‘re not visiting factories.  Are you visiting museums in our city?你来的时候参观了博物馆。你没有参观工厂。你参观我们城市的博物馆了吗?

3. Definite arrangement in the near future:3.表示近期内的明确安排:

I‘m travelling to Paris tomorrow. I‘m not travelling to Paris tomorrow. Am I travelling to Paris tomorrow?我明天要去巴黎旅行。我明天不去巴黎旅行。我明天要去巴黎旅行吗?

My son is taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight. My son isn’t taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight. Is he taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight?我儿子今晚要带他的女朋友去吃饭。我儿子今晚不带他的女朋友去吃饭。他今晚要带他的女朋友去吃饭吗?

You‘re going to Italy on holiday this year, aren’t you? You aren’t going to Greece. Where are you going on holiday this year?你今年要去意大利度假,不是吗?你不打算去希腊。今年你打算去哪里度假?

三.Past Simple (past tense + common aspect)三.一般过去时(过去时态+通用体)

Affirmative: Subject + Verb in Past Simple (2nd form)肯定句:主语+动词一般过去式(第二种形式)

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They lived in London ten years ago.十年前,我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们生活在伦敦。

Negative: Subject + didn’t (did not) + Base Form of the Verb否定句:主语+助动词didn't+动词原形

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They didn’t like the film.我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们不喜欢这个电影。

Interrogative: Question Word + did + subject + Base Form of the Verb疑问句:疑问词+did+主语+动词原形

Where did I/ you/ he/ she/ it/ we/ they meet Richard?在哪里我/你/他/她/它/我们/他们遇见的理查德?

Actions, events in the past:表示发生在过去的动作,事件:

I had lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday. I didn’t have lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday. Did I have lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday?我昨天和鲁滨孙太太一起吃的午饭。我昨天没有和鲁滨孙夫人一起吃午饭。我昨天和鲁滨孙夫人共进午餐了吗?

Mother went to work on Tuesday. Mother didn’t go to work on Tuesday. Did Mother go to work on Tuesday?妈妈星期二去上班了。妈妈星期二没去上班。妈妈星期二去上班了吗?

You did the sh

如何搞清英语里的12种时态?

opping this morning. You didn’t do the shopping this morning. Where did you do the shopping this morning?你今天早上去买东西了。你今天早上没去买东西。今天上午你在哪里买的东西?

She travelled to Spain last year. She didn’t travel anywhere last year. Where did she travel last year?她去年去了西班牙。她去年没有去任何地方旅行。她去年在哪儿旅行的?

四.Past Progressive (past tense + progressive aspect)四.过去进行时(过去时态+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + was/ were + Verb-ING肯定句:主语+was/were+动词ing形式

I/He/She was having a shower when you called.当你打电话给我时,他正在洗澡。

We/ You/ They were watching TV when Bob arrived.鲍勃来的时候,我们/你们/他们正在看电视。

Negative: Subject + wasn’t (was not)/ weren’t (were not) + Verb-ING否定句:主语+wasn't/weren't+动词ing形式

I/ He/ She wasn’t having a shower when you called.你打来电话时,她没在洗澡。

We/ You/ They weren't watching TV when Bob arrived.鲍伯来的时候,我们[你] [他们]没在看电视。

Interrogative: Question word + was/ were + Verb-ING疑问句:疑问词+was/were+动词ing形式

What were you doing when Bob arrived?当鲍勃来的时候,你在干什么?

What was she doing when you called?当你打电话的时候,她在干什么?

Action in progress in the past:表示过去正在进行的动作:

I was working in the garden when my sister arrived. I wasn’t working in the garden when my sister arrived. Was I working in the garden when my sister arrived?我姐姐来的时候,我正在花园里工作。当我姐姐来的时候,我没在花园里工作。我姐姐来的时候,我正在花园工作吗?

We were watching a film at ten last night. We weren’t watching a film at ten last night. Were we watching film at ten last night?昨天晚上十点我们正在看电影。昨天晚上十点我们没在看电影。昨天晚上十点我们在看电影吗?

She was playing with the kids from eight to nine. She wasn’t playing with the kids from eight to nine. Who was she playing with?她正在和八岁到九岁的孩子们一起玩。她没和八岁到九岁的孩子们一起玩。她在和谁玩?

五.Present Perfect Simple (present perfect tense + common aspect)现在完成时(现在时态+通用体)

Affirmative: Subject + have/ has + Past Participle (3rd Form of the Verb)肯定句:主语+have/has+过去分词(动词的第三种形式)

I/ You/ We/ They have finished the letter.我/你们/我们/他们已经写完信了。

He/ She has finished the letter.他/她写完了信。

Negative: Subject + haven’t (have not)/ hasn’t (has not) + Past Participle否定:主语+haven't/hasn't+过去分词

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t finished the letter.我/你/我们/他们还没写完这封信。

He/ She hasn’t finished the letter.他/她还没写完这封信。

Interrogative: Question Word + have/ has + Past Participle疑问句:疑问词+have/has+过去分词

Have I/ you/we/ they finished the letter?我/你/我们/他们写完信了吗?

Has he/she finished the letter?他/她写完信了吗?

1. Action with a result:1.带有结果的行为:

Sorry, I‘ve parked at the wrong place. I haven’t parked at the wrong place. Have I parked at the wrong place?对不起,我停车停错地方了。我停车没有停错地方。我停车停错地方了吗?

You‘ve (already) printed the letters. You haven’t printed the letters (yet). Have you printed the letters (yet)?你已经把信打印好了。你还没有打印这些信呢。你把信打印出来了吗?

We‘ve (already) done the rooms. We haven’t done the rooms yet. Have we done the rooms (yet)?我们已经把房间整理好了。我们还没打扫房间呢。我们把房间整理好了吗?

He has already repaired the lawn-mower. He hasn’t repaired the lawn-mower yet. Has he repaired the lawn-mower yet?他已经修好了割草机。他还没有修理割草机。他修好了割草机吗?

2. Action in incomplete time:2.表示持续性的动作:

Our friends have visited us four times this summer. Our friends haven’t visited us this summer. How many times have our friends visited us this summer?今年夏天我们的朋友已经来我们这儿四次了。今年夏天,我们的朋友没有来看我们。今年夏天,我们朋友来看过我们几次?

I‘ve been to the cinema a lot lately. I haven’t been to the cinema lately. Have I been to the cinema lately?最近我经常去看电影。我最近没去看电影。我最近去看电影了吗?

You‘ve been on holiday this year. You haven’t been on holiday this year. Have you been on holiday this year?你今年度假去了。你今年没去度假。今年你去度假了吗?

3. Action in the past without saying when:3.过去某一时刻发生的动作:

 Jane has already been to Italy. Jane has never been to Italy. Has Jane ever been to Italy?珍妮已经去过意大利了。简从未去过意大利。简去过意大利吗?

You have already swum in this lake. You haven’t swum in this lake yet. Have you ever swum in this lake?你已经在这个湖里游过泳了。你没有游过这湖呢。你在这个湖里游过泳吗?

You‘ve been to the hairdresser’s. You haven’t been to the hairdresser’s. Where have you been?你去过理发店了。你还没去过理发店。你去哪儿了?

4. Action beginning in the past and still continuing:4.表示过去某一时刻开始并一直持续的动作:

The Simpsons have lived here for eight years. The Simpsons haven’t lived here for long. How long have the Simpsons lived here?辛普森一家在这里住了八年了。辛普森一家很久没有在这儿住。辛普森一家住在这里多久了?

He has driven a car since 2002. He hasn’t driven a car since 2002. Has he driven a car since 2002?他从2002年起开车的。他从2002年起就没有开车了。他是从2002年的时候开车的吗?

You‘ve worked here for two years. You haven’t worked here for two years. How long have you worked here?你在这里工作两年了。你已经两年没在这里工作了。你在这里工作多久了?

六.Present Perfect Progressive (present perfect tense + progressive aspect)六.现在完成进行时(现在完成时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + have/ has been + Verb-ING肯定句:主语+have/has been+动词ing形式

I/ you/ We/ They have been learning English for a year.我/你/我们/他们学英语已经有一年了。

He/ She has been learning English for a year.他/她学英语已经有一年了。

Negative: Subject + haven’t/hasn’t been + Verb-ING否定句:主语+haven’t/hasn’t been+动词ing形式

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t been playing tennis for a long time.我/你/我们/他们很久没有打网球了。

He/ She hasn’t been playing tennis for a long time.他/她很久没有打网球了。

Interrogative: Question Word + have/ has + Subject + been Verb-ING疑问句:疑问词+have/has+主语+been 动词ing形式

How long have I/ you/ we/ they been learning English?我/你/我们/他们学英语多长时间了?

How long has he/ she been learning English?他/她学英语多长时间了?

Action beginning in the past and still continuing (with the progress emphasized):从过去开始并仍在持续的行动(着重强调的仍在进行):

They‘ve been staying in this hotel for ten days. They haven’t been staying in this hotel for ten days. Have they been staying in this hotel for ten days?他们已经在这家旅馆住了十天了。他们已经十天没有住在这家旅馆了。他们在这家旅馆住了十天了吗?

He has been mowing the lawn all this morning. He hasn’t been mowing the lawn all this morning. How long has he been mowing the lawn?整个上午他一直在修剪草坪。整个上午他都没有修剪草坪。他修剪草坪多长时间了?

You‘ve been missing classes lately. You haven’t been coming to class lately. What have you been doing lately?你最近一直缺课。你最近一直都没来上课。你最近在忙什么?

七.Past Perfect Simple (past tense + common aspect)七.过去完成时(过去时态+通用体)

Affirmative: Subject + had + Past Participle肯定句:主语+had+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They had already met Sarah before the party.我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会前已经见过莎拉了。

Negative: Subject + hadn’t (had not) + Past Participle否定句:主语+hadn’t+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They hadn’t met Sarah before the party.我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会前没有见过莎拉。

Interrogative: Question Word + had + Subject + Past Participle疑问句:疑问词+had+主语+过去分词

Had I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they met Sarah before the party?我/你/他/她/我们/他们在聚会前见过莎拉吗?

Action in the past before another:表示发生在过去某一行为之前的动作:

She said she had written three letters the day before. She said she hadn’t written any letters the day before. How many letters had she written the day before?她说她前一天写了三封信。她说她前一天没写过信。她前一天写了多少封信?

They had lived in York before they moved to Liverpool. They hadn’t lived in York before they moved to Liverpool. Where had they lived before they moved to Liverpool?他们搬到利物浦以前住在约克郡。他们搬到利物浦以前没有住在纽约。他们搬到利物浦之前住在哪里?

You‘d locked the door before you left. You hadn’t locked the door before you left. Had you locked the door before you left?你走之前锁好门了。你离开之前没有锁好门。你离开之前锁门了吗?

八.Past Perfect Progressive (past perfect tense + progressive aspect)八.过去完成进行时(过去完成时态+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + had been + Verb-ING肯定句:主语+had been+动词ing形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They had been living in German for years before  moving here.我/你/他/她/我们/他们在搬到这里以前,已经在德国住了很多年了。

Negative: Subject + hadn’t been + Verb-ING否定句:主语+hadn't been+动词ing形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They hadn’t been living in Germany for a long time before moving here.我/你/他/她/我们/他们搬到这里以前没有在德国住过。

Interrogative: Question Word + had + Subject + been Verb-ING疑问句:疑问词+had+主语+been 动词ing形式

How long had I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they been living in Germany before moving here?我/你/他/她/我们/他们搬到德国以前,在这里住了多久?

Action in the past before another (with the progress emphasized):表示发生在过去某一行为之前的动作:(强调动作正在进行)

He said he had been mowing the lawn all that morning. He said he hadn’t been mowing the lawn all that morning. How long had he been mowing the lawn when you met him?他说他整个上午都在割草。他说他整个上午都没有割草。你见到他时,他割草多久了?

They had been working for the same company for a long time before they changed jobs. They hadn’t been working for the same company for a long time before they changed jobs. Had they been working for the same company for a long time before they changed jobs?在换工作之前,他们在同一家公司工作了很长时间。他们在同一家公司工作了很长时间才换工作。在换工作之前,他们在同一家公司工作了很长时间吗?

They had been  living in York before they moved to Liverpool. They hadn’t been living in York before they moved to Liverpool. How long had they been living in York before they moved to Liverpool?他们搬到利物浦以前一直住在约克。他们搬到利物浦之前,还没有在约克住过。他们搬到利物浦之前,在约克住了多久?

八.Future Simple (future tense + common aspect)八.一般将来时(将来时态+通用体)

Affirmative: Subject + Will + Base Form of the Verb肯定句:主语+will+动词原形

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will see Jane when she comes back from India.我/你/他/她/我们/她从印度回来后将见到简。

Negative: Subject + Won’t (will not) + Base Form of the Verb否定句:主语+不将+动词原形

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t see Jane when she comes back from India.我/你/他/她/我们/她从印度回来后不会见到简。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Base Form of the Verb疑问句:疑问词+will+主语+动词原形

Will I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they see Jane when she comes back from India?我/你/他/她/我们/他们从印度回来后将会见到简吗?

Fact, action or event in the future:表示未来的事情,行为或事件

I will be thirty years old next year. I won’t be thirty years old again. Will I be thirty years old again?明年我就三十岁了。我再也不会三十岁了。我还会再回到三十岁吗?

We‘ll meet them at the station at six. We won’t meet them at the station. Where will we meet them?我们六点钟在车站接他们。我们不会在车站接他们。我们将在哪儿见他们?

You‘ll cross the channel by ferry. You won’t cross the channel. How will you cross the channel?你将乘渡船横渡海峡。你不会横渡海峡。你将如何横渡海峡?

十.Progressive (future tense + progressive aspect)十.将来进行时(将来时态+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + Will Be + Verb-ING肯定句:主语+will be+动词ing形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will be having fun at the party.我/你/他/她/我们/他们将在聚会上会玩得很开心。

Negative: Subject + Won’t Be + Verb-ING否定句:主语+Won’t Be +动词ing形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t be having fun at the party.我/你/他/她/我们/他们将不会在聚会上玩得很开心。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Be Verb-ING疑问句:疑问词+will+主语+be 动词ing形式

Will I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they be having fun at the party?我/你/他/她/我们/他们将在聚会上玩得开心吗?

Action in progress at a given time of the future:表示未来特定时间内正在进行的动作:

This time tomorrow we will be flying to Los Angeles. We won’t be flying to New York. Where will we be flying?明天这个时候我们将飞往洛杉矶。我们将不会飞往纽约。我们将往哪里飞行?

You‘ll be doing housework with me at six tomorrow. You won’t be playing football. What will you be doing at six tomorrow?明天六点你将和我一起做家务。你将不会踢足球。明天六点你将干什么?

I‘ll be playing tennis from seven to nine. I won’t be playing tennis at six. When will I be playing tennis?我将从七点到九点打网球。我六点不会打网球。我将什么时候打网球?

十一.Future Perfect Simple (future perfect tense + common aspect)十一.将来完成时(将来完成时+通用体)

Affirmative: Subject + Will Have + Past Participle肯定句:主语+will have+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will have met Dora’s husband by this time tomorrow.我/你/他/她/我们/他们明天这个时候将会见到朵拉的丈夫。

Negative: Subject + Won’t Have + Past Participle否定句:主语+Won’t Have+过去分词

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t have met Dora’s husband by this time tomorrow.我/你/他/她/我们/他们明天这个时候将不会见到朵拉的丈夫。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Have + Past Participle疑问句:疑问词+will+主语+have+过去分词

Will you have met Dora’s husband by this time tomorrow?明天这个时候你会见到朵拉的丈夫吗?

Action completed by a given time of the future:在未来某一特定时间内完成的行动:

I will have done this work by the end of next week. I won’t have done this work by the end of next week. Will I have done this work by the end of next week?到下周末我将完成这项工作。到下周末我完成不了这项工作。到下周末我会完成这项工作吗?

They‘ll have arrived by the time we return. They won’t have arrived by the time we return. Will they have arrived by the time we return?我们回去的时候他们就应该到了。我们回去的时候他们应该还没到。他们将在我们回去的时候到达吗?

She will have taken three exams by next Tuesday. She won’t have taken any exams by next Tuesday. How many exams will she have taken by next Tuesday?到下周二她将参加三次考试。到下周二她就不会参加考试了。到下星期二她将参加多少场考试?

十二.Future Perfect Progressive (future perfect tense + progressive aspect)十二.将来完成进行时(将来完成时+进行体)

Affirmative: Subject + Will Have Been + Verb-ING肯定句:主语+will have been+动词ing形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They will have been working with John for ten years next week.到下周,就是你/他/她/他们/我们和约翰一起工作的十周年了。

Negative: Subject + Won’t Have Been + Verb-ING否定句:主语+Won’t Have Been+动词ing形式

I/ You/ He/ She/ We/ They won’t have been working with John for ten years next week.到下周,你/他/她/他们/我们和约翰一起工作还没到十年。

Interrogative: Question Word + Will + Subject + Have Been + Verb-ING疑问句:疑问词+will+主语+have been+动词ing形式

How long will I/ you/ he/ she/ we/ they have been working with John next week?到下周为止,我/你/他/她/我们/他们和约翰一起工作多久了?

Action completed by or still in progress at a given time of the future (with the progress emphasized):在将来某一时刻完成或仍在进行的动作(强调的是动作仍在进行):

We will have been staying here for a week tomorrow. We won’t have been staying here for a week tomorrow. How long will we have been staying here?明天开始,我们将在这里呆一个星期。明天开始,我们就不会在这里呆一个星期了。我们将要在这里呆多久?

You will have been living here for thirty years by this time next year.  You won’t have been living here for thirty years by this time next year How long will you have been living here by this time next year?到明年这个时候,你已经在这里住了三十年了。到明年这个时候,你在这里还没住够住三十年。明年这个时候,你在这里一共住了多久了?

I‘ll have been playing the guitar for ten years by next year. I won’t have been playing the guitar for ten years by next year. How long will I have been playing the guitar?到明年,我就已经弹了十年吉他了。到明年,我弹吉他还不到十年。我将要弹吉他多久?