动词概述:从“play”看动词“七十二变”

少儿英语培训机构 cj

英语是一种动态发展的语言,而其中,“动词”恰如其分地说明了该种语言“”的特质。动词,虽然是最复杂的一个词类,但其变化并非“无常”。动词因其在句中功能不同而发生变化,同时根据施动方的词性而变位。因此,掌握了动词“七十二变”般的用法,就相当于掌握了英语的“半壁江山”。今天小编以“play basketball”一词组来解释“动词之变”。

1. 时:表示时间区别的动词形式。英语动词有两个“时”:现在时和过去时

2. 体:表示动作或过程在一定时间内处于何种状态的动词形式。

   英语动词有两个体:进行体—be加主动词的-ing分词构成; 完成体—have加主动词-ed分词构成。

   英语“时”、“体”结合使用,构成8种形式:

(1)一般现在时:The boy plays basketball very well.

(2)一般过去时:The boy played basketball very well when he was 5 years old.

(3)现在进行时:The boy is playing basketball now.

(4)过去进行时:The boy was playing basketball this time yesterday.

(5)现在完成时:The boy has played basketball for an hour.

(6)过去完成时:The boy had played basketball for an hour by lunchtime.

(7)现在完成进行时:The boy has been playing

动词概述:从“play”看动词“七十二变”

basketball for a long time.

(8)过去完成进行时:The boy had been playing basketball for two hours by 12 o’clock.

3. 态:表示主语和谓语动词之间的的主动或被动关系的动词形式。英语动词有两种语态:主动态和被动态。

    同样,被动语态也有不同形式的时、体形式:(假设主语为第三人称单数)

(9)一般现在时:is played

(10)一般过去时:was played

(11)现在进行时:is being played

12)过去进行时:was being played

(13)现在完成时:has been played

(14)过去完成时:had been played

(15)现在完成进行时:has been playing

(16)过去完成进行时:had been playing

4. 式:区别说话人以何种口气说话的动词形式。英语动词有三种表示不同口气的动词东西形式:陈述式、祈使式和虚拟式。

 (17)陈述式:The boy plays basketball every day.

 (18)祈使式:Boys, play basketball now.  

 (19))虚拟式:It is time the boy played basketball.

由上可知,不同的时、体、态、式,决定了动词的不同形式。另外,主语以及动词的功能变化,也会影响动词的形式。因此,同一个动词,在不同时间、不同地点、不同主语下,动词形式都要做相应变化。

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